One of the most famous models of instructional design is called the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model consists of five steps: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. This model is the most popular instructional design models and is used in creating custom training solutions and education materials for all types of businesses, schools, and programs.
With the ADDIE model, each step feeds directly into the next. There are numerous variations on this basic model that have been adapted for specific instructional design needs. The basic model is presented below.
The Instructional Design Process:
Step 1: Analysis
In this first step of the model, the learning goals, objectives, and problems associated with the audience need to be identified. The target audiences needs, values, and current knowledge and ideas about the topic must also be considered. It is at this stage that the teaching environment, barriers to teaching or learning, teaching methods, and timelines are identified or decided upon. This step can also include evaluation of learning theories to help evaluate the type of plan that needs to be created.
Step 2: Design
This step of the model takes the information obtained in the Analysis step and begins to develop it into a specific and detailed plan. This process is systematic and produces specific learning objectives and usually results in a mock up or prototype of the instructional project. This is where the plan begins to take shape and become focused. This is also the step where ideas can be tested and rejected.
Step 3: Development
During this step, the information from the Analysis step that was turned into a prototype in the Design step is turned into an actual instructional project. This is the building phase where the plan is given a physical form that will likely closely resemble the final product.
Step 4: Implementation
This step takes the learning plan and the product developed in the first three steps and puts it into action. This is the step where the actual instruction and learning take place. Instructors are given the material and learn how to teach it, and then they distribute the instructional materials to the learners and implement the instructional plan.
Step 5: Evaluation
This step takes the information gathered from delivering the instructional plan to the learners in the Implementation step and evaluates it. There are two types of evaluation in this step: Formative and summative. The formative evaluation exists in each of the prior steps in the model. Each step is evaluated as it is followed, providing feedback to the creator of the instructional plan. The summative evaluation process involves evaluating the plan based on prior criterion and from feedback from learners and instructors. Based on the information gathered in this step, the plan is revised as is necessary and the plan can be sent back to any and all steps necessary to fix issues that exist.
This model can be adapted in many ways to meet the needs of any instructional situation. One common adaptation is for rapid prototyping, which adapts the model to add feedback at each stage, which allows the model to be followed in a much quicker fashion.